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老 子 -先秦

[日期:2010-05-07] 来源:  作者:未知 [字体: ]


    老子 道教尊奉为道祖。据西汉司马迁《史记》记载,老子姓李,名耳,字聃,楚国苦县厉乡曲仁里人。署名西汉刘向著的《列仙传》则说老子字伯阳,陈国人。道教认为,“聃”和“伯阳”都是老子的字。至于其籍贯,或属之陈国,或属之楚国,这两种说法并不冲突,苦县本属陈国,后来陈国为楚国所灭,故苦县又属楚国。 

关于老子的出生年代,《史记》未载,只记孔子曾向他问礼。《列仙传》载老子生于殷时。道教典籍,如唐末杜光庭的《道德真经广圣义》、北宋贾善翔的《犹龙传》、南宋谢守灏的《混元圣纪》都说老子生于殷朝第二十二王武丁九年,岁在庚辰二月十五日卯时。 

据道教典籍记载,老子于周文王时任守藏史,后来迁为柱下史。周朝衰落之际,老子辞官离去,经函谷关(在今河南灵宝县境内)时,关令尹喜恳请他著书传世,于是老子写下了五千余言,这就是传诵千古的《道德经》。 

在先秦时期,先后有关尹子(尹喜)、杨朱、列子、庄子等继承和发展老子思想,从而形成了道家学派。战国末期的道家将老子与黄帝联系起来,形成了黄老之学。西汉初期,黄老之学曾被作为政治上的指导思想。两汉之际,黄老之学的清静无为思想与方仙道的神仙信仰相结合,形成了黄老道,老子被视为“道”的化身。东汉明帝、章帝之际,益州太守王阜作《老子圣母碑》云:“老子者,道也 ”。桓帝延熹八年(165年),陈相边韶作《老子铭》,称老子“道成仙化,蝉蜕渡世。自(伏)羲(神)农以来,世为圣者作师”。 

东汉顺帝时,张道陵在巴蜀鹤鸣山创立正一盟威道 (又称天师道),尊老子为教主,以“道”为最高信仰,奉《老子五千文》为经典。张道陵又著《老子想尔注》,认为道散形为气,聚形为太上老君(即老子)。后来道教又将老子尊为“道德天尊”,列为三清尊神之一。在道教中还流传着“老子一气化三清”的说法。 

唐朝皇帝姓李,自称为老子后裔,尊老子为圣祖。唐高宗乾封元年 (666年)尊老子为“太上玄元皇帝”。 其后,玄宗又于天宝年间一再加号为 “大圣祖玄元皇帝”、“圣祖大道玄元皇帝”、“大圣祖高上金阙玄元天皇大帝”,并于西京、亳州设太清宫。宋真宗为避宋室圣祖赵玄朗讳,改称老子为“真元皇帝”。大中祥符六年(1013)八月,诏加号老子为“太上老君混元上德皇帝”。 

唐玄宗开元三年(715年)诏以二月十五日老子诞辰为玄元节。后来唐武宗又敕老子诞辰为降圣节,全国休假一日。可见,老子的圣诞为二月十五日,曾被唐朝政府所确认,并作为公共假日。

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