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张道陵-秦汉

[日期:2010-05-07] 来源:  作者:未知 [字体: ]
   张道陵 (34—156)道教创始人。第一代天师。本名张陵,东汉沛国丰邑(今江苏丰县)人。道书载:为汉留侯子房八世孙。建武十年正月十五夜,生于吴之天目山,七岁读老子道德二篇,即了其义。为太学书生,通晓天文、地理、诸子、五经、从学者千余人。永平二年(59)以直言极谏科中,拜巴郡江州令(今重庆),时年二十六岁。因素志于黄老之道,见世风日下,不久遂弃官隐于北邙山(今河南洛阳北)。汉章帝、和帝诏征皆不就。后与弟子王长从淮入江西鄱阳,诉流至云锦山(今龙虎山),炼九天神丹,三年丹成而龙虎见,山因以名。闻蜀中民风纯厚,易可教化,入蜀居鹤鸣山修道。汉安元年(142)感太上授以正一盟威之道或云三天正法正一科术要道法文,创立了道教。立二十四治,以祭酒分领,不喜施刑罚,廉耻治民,符水治病,百姓奉之为师。尊老子为教祖,奉《老子五千文》撰《老子想尔注》阐扬道教教义,称“道”即是“一”,“一散形为气,聚形为太上老君”。以“道”为最高信仰。永寿二年(156),以盟威都功诸品经箓、玉册、剑印付子衡,与夫人雍氏升仙而去,年一百二十三岁。唐天宝七载册赠“太师”,僖宗中和四年(884)封为“三天扶教大法师”。宋理宗加封“正一静应显佑真君”。道教尊为祖天师,泰玄上相,降魔护道天尊。
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