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道教文化对中国古代文学的影响

[日期:2010-05-08] 来源:  作者:未知 [字体: ]

 

[道家始祖太上老君塑像]

 

    宗教文化对文学的影响,在世界的各个角落里都可以感受到。

 

    基督教文化对西方文学发生的重要影响,在西方许多作家的作品里均可以发现。同样,中国的宗教文化也曾经对中国的文学发生过重要影响。中国的宗教主要有三种,即佛教、道教和伊斯兰教。在此基础上形成的宗教文化,也主要有三个部分:一是佛教文化;二是道教文化;三是伊斯兰教文化。在三种宗教文化中,只有道教文化的根是深扎在中国的土地上的。

 

    道教不同于佛教和伊斯兰教,它不是由外国传来,它是从中国本土生长出来的。它源于先秦的道家,奉老子为教祖和最高天神,同时承袭了中国古代社会的巫术和求仙方术,是土生土长的本民族宗教。它在东汉晚期逐渐形成,长久作用于民族文化心理、风俗习惯、科学技术以及社会政治经济生活的广泛领域。道教文化是中国传统文化的一个重要组成部分,对中国文学的影响是非常大的。

 

    道教追求在现实世界上建立“人人无贵贱,皆天之所生也”,“高者抑之,下者举之”,“有余者损之,不足者补之”的平等社会。这种对理想境界的追求影响了许多文学家,从而使一批类似《桃花源记》和《水浒传》的文学作品出现,《桃花源记》期望建立一个宁静、平等、安乐的世外世界,《水浒传》期望凡到梁山泊聚义的人都能成为兄弟。今天的中国当代文学中,有一批写反对司法界腐败的作品,这批作品中反映出的对平等的渴望,其思想的源头里,有一支是连着道教文化的那条河道的。

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