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什么是道教文学

[日期:2010-05-08] 来源:  作者:未知 [字体: ]
 道教是中国唯一的土生土长的宗教,它是在汉朝末年创立的。道教集中国古代文化思想之大成,以道学、仙学、神学和教学为主干,并融入医学、巫术、数理、文学、天文、地理、阴阳五行等学问。内容讲求长生不老,画符驱鬼。道教创立后尊老子为教主。 

  道教以"道"名教,对老子之道一要学习,二要信仰,三要继承。四要发扬。或言老庄学说,或言内外修炼,或言符箓方术,其教义就是以"道"或"道德"为核心,认为天地万物都有"道"而派生,即所谓"一生二,二生三,三生万物",社会人生都应法"道"而行,最后回归自然。 

  具体而言,是从"天"、"地"、"人"、"鬼"四个方面展开教义系统的。天,既指现实的宇宙,又指神仙所居之所。天界号称有三十六天,天堂有天门,内有琼楼玉宇,居有天神,天尊、天帝,骑有天马,饮有天河,侍奉有天兵、天将、天女。 

  其奉行者为天道。地,既指现实的地球和万物,又指鬼魂受难之地狱。其运行受之于地道。人,既指总称之人类,也指局限之个人。人之一言一行当奉行人道、人德。鬼,指人之所归。人能修善德,即可阴中超脱,脱离苦海,姓氏不录于鬼关,是名鬼仙。神仙,也是道教教义思想的偶像体现。 

  道教是一种多神教,沿袭了中国古代对于日月、星辰、河海山岳以及祖先亡灵都奉祖的信仰习惯,形成了一个包括天神、地祗和人鬼的复杂的神灵系统。 

  道教在中国发展的几千年来,形成了自己特有的文化.道教文化极其高雅,极其通俗。亦其中一部分已演化为民间世俗,成为劳动群众精神生活的组成部分。 

  道教是我国固有的宗教,渊源于古代的巫术和秦汉时的神仙方术,(公元12-144)由张陵(即张道陵)创方于四川鹤鸣…(-作鹄鸣山,邑境内)。入道者须出五斗米,故为五斗米道,因道教徒尊称张道陵为张道陵为"天师",故又名"天师道"。 

  道教奉老子为教祖,尊称"太上老君",信仰太上老君的"道",其著作《道德经》奉为经典。认为"道"无所不包,无所不在,是胡的开始,天地万物都是由它化生和主宰的,道教的教理教义便是"道"演绎山来,道教徒相信经过一定的修炼,人可以返本还源,与"道"同一体性,达到长生久视的境界。 

  老子《道德经》,又名《老子五千文》,是道教的主要经典,玉清元始天尊。上清灵宝天尊和太清道德大尊是道教所崇拜的最高的大神。此外,民间一切神的信仰包括天神,地祗,人鬼,也为道教所供奉。 

  道教在我国已有千八百多年的历史,东汉末,张角的太平道和张鲁的五斗米道是早期道教中规模最大,影响最广的两个道派,道教在东晋南北朝时代经历了重大变革,出现了大量的新经,发展了教义,充实了仪范。 

  南北朝全唐宋两代形成了道教的正一派,在金、元之际,全真派的兴起影响极大,盛极一时,由王重阳在山东宁海(今山东牟平)创立全真派,其徒邱处机更加发展扩张了全真派,经元、明、清各代,流传至今,正一派从事符篆斋醮,祈福禳灾。全真派主张"全神炼气,出家修真",并建立了传戒和丛林制度。 
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